Wednesday, 26 October 2011

Computer Science Milestones (1900 - 2011)


I wanted to share with you a timeline of major events in computer science history. The milestones listed hereunder are those that I deem important and include only 20th and 21st century events. 

1900 - In a lecture to the International Congress of Mathematicians, David Hilbert asks for way to mechanize all of mathematical reasoning

1921 - Czech author Karel Capek popularizes the term ‘robot’ in his play “R.U.R. (Rossum’s Universal Robots)”

1925 - Vannevar Bush and colleagues create the first large-scale analog calculator at MIT

1931 - Kurt Gödel publishes his Incompleteness Theorem; the system of “Gödel numbering” used in the proof foreshadows computer programming

1936 - Alan Turing publishes “On computable numbers,” often considered the founding document of computer science; the paper gives an explicit construction of a universal Turing machine. Alonzo Church and Emil Post arrive at similar ideas independently

1936 - Working alone in Germany, Konrad Zuse builds the Z1, the first working stored-program computer

1937 - In his MIT master’s thesis—considered possibly the most influential master’s thesis in history—Claude Shannon proposes the application of Boolean algebra to electrical circuit design

1940 - Building on earlier breakthroughs by Polish mathematician Marian Rejewski, Alan Turing builds an improved “Bombe” at Bletchley Park, to break the German Enigma code and help the Allies win WWII

1942 - Isaac Asimov introduces his Three Laws of Robotics

1942 - At Iowa State College, John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry successfully test a special-purpose vaccum-tube computer able to solve up to 29 simultaneous linear equations; Atanasoff will later spend decades in legal disputes to establish his computer’s priority over Eckert and Mauchly’s ENIAC

1943 - Colossus, the world’s first programmable electronic computer, begins operation at Bletchley Park

1943 - During the Manhattan Project, Richard Feynman and others pioneer large-scale scientific computing, using humans and later mechanical calculators

1943 - In their paper “A Logical Calculus Immanent in Nervous Activity,” Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts propose neural networks and finite automata

1944 - The Mark I, designed by Howard Aiken, begins operations at Harvard

1945 - In a 100-page “draft report on the EDVAC”, John von Neumann describes the architecture of a stored-program computer (henceforth called “von Neumann architecture”)

1945 - Vannevar Bush publishes “As We May Think” in the Atlantic Monthly, a now-famous article that foresees a global information network based on hypertext

1946 - At the University of Pennsylvania, J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly complete the ENIAC

1946 - In Los Alamos, Stanislaw Ulam develops the Monte Carlo method to speed up calculations of neutron diffusion in nuclear weapons

1947 - At Bell Labs, John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley invent the transistor

1947 - Operators of the Mark II computer trace an error to a moth trapped in a relay. The incident, popularized by Grace Murray Hopper, stimulates wider adoption of the terms “bug” and “debugging”

1947 - George Dantzig proposes the simplex algorithm for linear programming

1948 - In his landmark paper “A Mathematical Theory of Communication,” Claude Shannon first uses the word “bit,” attributing it to John Tukey

1948 - Norbert Wiener publishes “Cybernetics: Or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine”

1949 - The EDSAC, built by Maurice Wilkes, begins operations at Cambridge University

1949 - Claude Shannon initiates the rigorous mathematical study of cryptography, publishing his proof that the one-time pad is unbreakable and that any unbreakable encryption system has the same basic properties

1950 - Alan Turing proposes the Turing Test for artificial intelligence; four years later, Turing will commit suicide after being prosecuted for homosexuality

1950 - CSIRAC, in Australia, becomes the first computer to play music

1951 - J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly release UNIVAC I, the first commercial electronic computer

1951 - Grace Murray Hopper creates A-O, considered the first compiler

1951 - MIT’s Whirlwind I computer goes online. Designed by Jay Forrester, Whirlwind features magnetic core memory and vacuum tubes that last 1000 - times longer than those previously available

1952 - Based on analysis of early returns, a UNIVAC computer borrowed by CBS News predicts that Dwight Eisenhower will defeat Adlai Stevenson in the presidential election

1954 - Researchers at Birkbeck College perform the first demonstration of machine translation, with a rudimentary translation of English into French

1955 - MIT’s Whirlwind I becomes the first computer to display graphics on a video console

1956 - Dartmouth hosts the first conference on artificial intelligence, bringing the term AI into use

1956 - In a letter to John von Neumann, Kurt Gödel first poses what will later become known as the P versus NP problem

1956 - Edsger Dijkstra conceives his shortest-path algorithm, the basis for modern trip-planning software (Dijkstra also may have been the first person to list his profession as “programmer”)

1956 - Noam Chomsky proposes the Chomsky Hierarchy, linking the theory of computing to formal languages

1956 - MIT Lincoln Laboratories builds the TX-0, the first general-purpose computer to be built with transistors

1956 - Reynold Johnson at IBM introduces the hard drive

1957 - A team led by John Backus at IBM delivers a compiler for FORTRAN, the first high-level programming language

1958 - John McCarthy proposes the LISP family of functional programming languages

1958 - As part of the air-defense project SAGE, MIT Lincoln Labs links hundreds of radar stations in the first large-scale computer network

1958 - Jack St. Kilby at Texas Instruments and Robert Noyce at Fairchild Semiconductor propose the integrated circuit

1959 - In the seminal paper “Finite Automata and Their Decision Problems,” Dana Scott and Michael Rabin introduce the concept of nondeterminism into computer science

1960 - Tony Hoare invents the Quicksort algorithm, while a visiting student at Moscow State University

1960 - Irving Reed and Gustave Solomon give a systematic construction of error-correcting codes; later, Elwyn Berlekamp and James Massey will discover an efficient decoding procedure

1960 - Ray Solomonoff proposes measuring the complexity of a string by the length of the shortest program that generates it; Andrey Kolmogorov and Gregory Chaitin will later arrive at similar ideas independently\

1961 - UNIMATE, the first industrial robot, begins work at General Motors

1961 - A team led by MIT professor Fernando Corbato demonstrates the first computer time-sharing system

1961 - A team led by MIT student Steve Russell creates Spacewar!, the first computer game

1962 - While studying computer models of the weather, MIT professor Edward Lorentz discovers the phenomena that would later be popularized as “chaos theory”

1963 - At MIT, Joseph Weizenbaum develops ELIZA, the now-famous program that simulates conversation between a Rogerian psychotherapist and a patient

1963 - MIT graduate student Ivan Sutherland develops Sketchpad, the first Computer-Aided Design (CAD) software

1963 - The first edition of ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is published

1964 - IBM releases the System/360, one of the first computers based on integrated circuits. Fred Brooks, the lead developer, later describes the lessons learned in his book “The Mythical Man-Month”

1964 - At Dartmouth, John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz create the BASIC programming language

1964 - Seymour Cray releases the CDC 6600, the first of many record-breaking supercomputers

1964 - American Airlines and IBM debut SABRE, the first computer-based travel reservation system

1965 - AT&T debuts 1ESS, the first electronic telephone switching system, in Succasunna, New Jersey

1965 - Intel cofounder Gordon Moore enunciates Moore’s Law, that the number of transistors per integrated circuit doubles roughly every two years

1965 - At IBM, James Cooley and John Tukey rediscover and popularize the Fast Fourier Transform (versions of which were known to Gauss and others)

1965 - Juris Hartmanis and Richard Stearns prove the existence of an infinite hierarchy of harder and harder computational problems

1965 - MIT student Richard Greenblatt begins developing Mac Hack, the first computer chess program to succeed in tournament play. Mac Hack also defeats the AI skeptic Hubert Dreyfus, who had famously claimed that computers would never play high-quality chess

1965 - Edsger Dijkstra introduces semaphores, which allow multiple concurrently-running programs to share the same resource

1966 - Texas Instruments unveils the first electronic handheld calculator

1966 - The first cash-dispensing ATM is installed in Tokyo

1967 - At SRI, Douglas Engelbart and Bill English apply for a patent for the first computer mouse

1967 - Andrew Viterbi invents the Viterbi algorithm for maximum-likelihood estimation in Hidden Markov Models; the algorithm will find major applications in speech recognition, bioinformatics, and both the CDMA and GSM cellular-phone standards

1967 - In Norway, Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard develop Simula 67, considered the first object-oriented programming language and a major influence on Smalltalk and later C++

1968 - Donald Knuth publishes Volume 1 of “The Art of Computer Programming”

1968 - Edsger Dijkstra publishes his now-famous article “Go To Statement Considered Harmful,” igniting an acrimonious debate about programming practices

1968 - The movie “2001: A Space Odyssey” introduces the world to HAL

1968 - Work begins at MIT on Macsyma, the first computer algebra system

1969 - Victor Scheinman builds the Stanford Arm, the first electronic computer-controlled robotic arm

1969 - ARPAnet, the precursor of the Internet, links UCLA, SRI, Santa Barbara, and Utah (MIT joins in 1970)

1969 - At Bell Labs, Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie create UNIX, and begin developing the C programming language

1969 - Arthur Bryson and Yu-Chi Ho introduce back-propagation, a learning technique for neural networks that is largely ignored until the 1980s.  Meanwhile, Marvin Minsky and Seymour Papert publish “Perceptrons,” a book that introduces important mathematical techniques into computer science, but has also been accused of “killing” neural-net research for more than a decade

1969 - The Apollo Guidance Computer plays a crucial role in steering Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin to the lunar surface

1970 - John Horton Conway invents the Game of Life cellular automaton; it is estimated that millions of dollars of computer time are wasted watching Lifeforms evolve

1970 - E. F. Codd proposes the relational database management system (RDBMS)

1970 - Yuri Matiyasevich, building on work of Julia Robinson, Martin Davis, and Hilary Putnam, shows the nonexistence of an algorithm to solve Diophantine equations, negatively resolving Hilbert’s Tenth Problem and demonstrating Turing-universality in one of the oldest parts of mathematics

1971 - Stephen Cook and Leonid Levin independently prove that the Satisfiability problem is NP-complete; a paper by Richard Karp a year later demonstrates the pervasiveness of the NP-completeness phenomenon

1971 - IBM commercially releases the floppy disk

1971 - Ray Tomlinson sends the first email message on ARPANET

1971 - Bob Thomas at BBN Technologies creates the first experimental computer virus

1972 - Atari releases Pong

1973 - At Xerox PARC, Alan Kay and collaborators create the Alto, featuring the first graphical user interface (GUI) with windows, icons, and menus

1973 - Robert Metcalfe at Xerox PARC creates Ethernet

1974 - MIT professor Barbara Liskov and students begin work on CLU, a predecessor of modern object-oriented programming languages

1976 - Kenneth Appel and Wolfgang Haken prove the Four-Color Map Theorem, the first major theorem to be proved using a computer

1975 - Bill Gates and Paul Allen adapt BASIC to the MITS Altair microcomputer

1975 - Inspired by work of Ralph Merkle, Stanford researchers Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman announce the first protocol for public key exchange (which had been discovered previously at the British GCHQ, but kept classified)

1975 - Robert Kahn and Vint Cerf test the new TCP/IP protocol between Stanford and University College London

1975 - At IBM, John Cocke advocates RISC processor architecture, and begins work on the 801 to implement it

1977 - Ronald Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adleman develop the public-key encryption system that they call RSA, and announce it via Martin Gardner’s Mathematical Games column in Scientific American

1977 - Robert Solovay and Volker Strassen publish an efficient randomized algorithm for primality testing, demonstrating both the feasibility of RSA and the power of randomized algorithm; shortly afterward, Gary Miller and Michael Rabin find a more efficient such algorithm

1977 - Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak release the Apple II

1977 - William Kahan puts forward a draft proposal for the IEEE floating-point standard

1977 - In Israel, Abraham Lempel and Jacob Ziv propose the data compression algorithm that (after improvements by Terry Welch and others) becomes the basis for PKZIP and most other general-purpose compression software

1978 - Intel releases the 8086, the first in the line of x86 processors

1978 - Donald Knuth begins developing the TeX computer typesetting system, which will eventually become the lingua franca of science

1979 - Dan Bricklin and Bob Frankston release VisiCalc, the first personal spreadsheet program and “killer app” for the Apple II

1980 - Duke University graduate students Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis create Usenet

1981 - Nintendo achieves its first video game success with Donkey Kong, designed by Shigeru Miyamoto

1981 - The IBM PC is released, running Microsoft’s MS-DOS

1981 - Richard Feynman points out the exponential difficulty of simulating quantum physics with a conventional computer, and speculates that a quantum-mechanical computer would do better; a few years later; David Deutsch will publish his construction of a universal quantum Turing machine

1982 - Work on pseudorandom generators by Manuel Blum, Silvio Micali, Shafi Goldwasser, and Andy Yao begins the modern era of complexity-based cryptography, which will lead over the next decade to notions such as zero-knowledge, interactive proofs, and probabilistically checkable proofs

1982 - Sony and Philips commercially release the compact disc 

1982 - Michael Fischer, Nancy Lynch, and Michael Paterson prove that it’s impossible to reach consensus in an asynchronous distributed system if there’s even a single faulty processor

1983 - Bjarne Stroustrup at Bell Labs develops C++, which is to become the dominant object-oriented programming language

1984 - With its iconic Super Bowl commercial, Apple announces the Macintosh, the first consumer machine with a mouse/windows interface

1984 - Robert Axelrod publishes “The Evolution of Cooperation,” a classic book that uses computer experiments with the Iterated Prisoners’ Dilemma to shed light on human nature

1984 - Leslie Valiant at Harvard proposes PAC (Probably Approximately Correct) learning, which becomes the central mathematical framework for machine learning, and helps to explain why Occam’s Razor “works”

1985 - Microsoft releases Windows

1985 - Richard Stallman publishes his GNU Manifesto, setting out the principles of the free-software movement

1986 - Thinking Machines begins shipping the CM-1 Connection Machine, considered the first massively-parallel supercomputer

1988 - While a graduate student at Cornell, Robert Morris creates a computer worm that cripples the Internet (though that wasn’t Morris’s intention)

1989 - Mike Godwin formulates Godwin’s Law: “As an online discussion grows longer, the probability of a comparison involving Nazis or Hitler approaches 1″

1990 - At CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, Tim Berners-Lee creates the World Wide Web

1990 - The IP=PSPACE Theorem, proved by Carsten Lund, Lance Fortnow, Howard Karloff, Noam Nisan, and Adi Shamir, shows the unexpected power of interactive protocols and opens a new era in the theory of computing

1990 - The discovery of boosting—a technique for combining the predictions of different learning algorithms—by Michael Kearns, Rob Schapire, and Yoav Freund, starts a revolution in the theory and practice of machine learning

1990 - Microsoft releases its first Office application suite, consisting of Word, Excel, and PowerPoint

1991 - At Los Alamos National Laboratory, Paul Ginsparg founds the arXiv, ushering in the era of rapid online dissemination of scientific research

1991 - The Linux kernel is designed by Finnish student Linus Torvalds

1991 - Phil Zimmermann releases Pretty Good Privacy (PGP), which makes “military-grade” public-key encryption easily available. After the Customs Service opens a criminal investigation, Zimmermann becomes an Internet folk hero

1993 - A team headed by Marc Andreessen at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign releases NCSA Mosaic, the browser credited with popularizing the Web

1993 - Joel Furr first uses the word “spam” to mean “excessive multiple postings” (in that case, to Usenet newsgroups)

1993 - With 24 satellites in orbit, the Global Positioning System achieves “initial operational capability.”  Originally designed by the US Department of Defense for military applications, GPS quickly finds numerous civilian uses including computerized car navigation

1994 - Peter Shor proves that a quantum computer, if built, would be able to factor numbers efficiently, launching quantum computing as an active research field

1994 - Thomas Nicely discovers the Pentium FDIV bug; the ensuing controversy and costly recall by Intel underscore the need for hardware verification

1995 - Pixar releases Toy Story, the first feature film made entirely with computer-generated imagery

1995 - Lee Zehrer launches Match.com, the first major online dating service

1995 - Amazon.com is launched by Jeff Bezos and sells its first book

1995 - The Institute for Genomic Research uses whole-genome shotgun sequencing—a technique dependent on massive computer power—to sequence the genome of the first free-living organism, the bacterium Haemophilus influenza

1996 - Stanford graduate students Larry Page and Sergey Brin begin developing Google

1997 - IBM’s Deep Blue computer defeats human world champion Garry Kasparov

1997 - Rob “Commander Taco” Malda founds Slashdot, which hosts freewheeling web-based conversations of the sort that would later be commonplace on blogs

1997 - NASA’s Sojourner robotic rover moves semi-autonomously across the surface of Mars for 83 days, sending spectacular images back to Earth

1999 - Widespread fear of the “Y2K millennium bug” underscores society’s dependence on legacy computer systems. Later, many will argue the fears were overblown

2000 - The first major denial-of-service (DoS) attack is launched against CNN, Yahoo, and eBay

2000 - Putting an unexpected practical twist on Alan Turing’s ideas from 1950, Manuel Blum, Luis von Ahn, and John Langford at Carnegie Mellon articulate the notion of CAPTCHAs (Completely Automated Public Turing tests to tell Computers and Humans Apart), the challenges—usually involving reading distorted text—that are used by numerous websites to discourage spam-bots

2001 - Larry Sanger and Jimmy Wales launch Wikipedia

2001 - Bram Cohen develops BitTorrent, the controversial peer-to-peer file sharing protocol now estimated to account for 27-55% of all Internet traffic

2001 - In the wake of the 9/11 attacks, news websites continue running smoothly in part because of routing algorithms designed by Akamai Technologies. Meanwhile, former MIT student Danny Lewin, who cofounded Akamai with Professor Tom Leighton, is on American Airlines flight 11 when it crashes into the World Trade Center

2002 - At IIT Kanpur, Manindra Agrawal and his students Neeraj Kayal and Nitin Saxena announce a deterministic polynomial-time algorithm for primality testing

2004 - Harvard sophomore Mark Zuckerberg launches Thefacebook.com

2005 - YouTube is launched, beginning an era of online video-sharing

2007 - Apple releases the iPhone

2010 - Some of Iran’s centrifuges for uranium enrichment are destroyed by the Stuxnet worm, in the first known large-scale cyberattack to target physical infrastructure

2011 - Making essential use of Facebook and Twitter as organizing tools, protesters in Egypt force the resignation of President Hosni Mubarak after 30 years of rule

2011 - IBM’s Watson computer defeats all-time human champions Ken Jennings and Brad Rutter on Jeopardy

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